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Compatible theory – Lyme disease

This entry is part 13 of 34 in the series ALS Experimental Theory

Lyme disease also known as lyme boreliosis or simply boreliosis is also somewhat mysterious problem which current medicine really struggles with. Surprisingly it can be relevant more than one would expected in the context of ALS experimental theory.

Lyme disease is the second tick-borne disease or at least that is the general consensus. The first is tick-borne encephalitis which is caused by viral infection and which targets CNS, i.e. it can cause serious brain damage. On the other hand Lyme disease/Boreliosis is believed it is bacterial infection and thus it is treated with ATBs – however with only partial success. The problem is that great deal of patients diagnosed with boreliosis does not respond well when treated with ATBs. These long ATB protocols have typical negative side effects and are not reliable. Second problem is the recurrent character of boreliosis which many people are aware of. The bacterial resistance and strange recurrency followed with surprisingly similar symptoms to initial and pre-ALS diagnosis really attracts my interest. In other post I share my personal experience where Lyme disease was suspected and played significant role in my research. The list of symptoms as per​1​ is quite long – 35 items or so. Most people usually experience strange fatigue and weakness, muscle pains and stiffness, joint pains, heightened temperature, needles & pins feelings, head pain, sight or hearing issues, balance issues, cramps etc.

The similarity of symptoms with intial stages of serious neurological diseases in my opinion cannot be a coincidence. Anyway the main reason why I´m writing this post with a „compatible theory label“ is the information in Stephen Harrod Buhner work​1​ and its link to Anthony William work​2,3​.

Medical Medium on Lyme disease

Anthony William devoted full chapter on Lyme disease, despite he claims he was not sure if it is a great idea to write it. I really do recommend reading it and also other relevant chapters if not whole book – mainly rheumatoid arthritis and shingles. Regarding lyme disease I can summarize the chapter in few bullet points.

  • The strange disease bothered many people in many regions but science got to tick bugs in somewhat primitive and silly way – one man is claimed to had tick before the symptoms.
  • All the bacterias observed and blamed by science as a root cause are in fact quite harmless microorganisms present in human body – some were never found in tick which really sounds like a contradiction.
  • Root cause is viral infection – EBV and HHV-6 + possibly cytomegalovirus and other yet unobserved virus types from herpes family (basically the viral multi-stage theory fully applies here as well as presence of toxicity, mainly heavy metals).
  • Lyme disease is just a label in the same way as chronic fatigue syndrom, fibromyalgy, multiple sclerosis or rheumative arthritis – all is caused by viruses but they can spread in the body in numerous ways and amounts which explains various problems science recognizes and classifies with their unique disease names.
  • Viral infection explains why ATB protocols do not work well on boreliosis – but they work partially which is explained by elimination of bacterial infection, coffactor infection like streptococcus etc.
  • Neurotoxins excreted by viruses cause pains, cramps and also contributes to „running out of minerals“ state which makes everything worse as they are important ingredients in body natural detox processes.
  • Now a bit of real controversy:  The viruses excret or leave behind some sort of toxic output/debris in a unique way which in certain amount is very similar to shape of spirochetes. Science is unable to disintguish this and thinks all is spirochetes, i.e. living microbs – bacteriums!  
  • Treatment consists of natural immunity supportive protocols and body detoxification.
The statement regarding spirochetal shape resembling real spirochete bacterium I need to extra highlight as that sounds really weird even to me – but who knows!

Lyme Disease Specialist

Stephen Harrod Buhner in my opinion deserves above title. Please check his books and note the great reviews as well. He is describing Lyme disease in appropriate way – „Welcome in Lyme wars“. I liked that because I believe this all is about war between humans and pathogens but to some extent also war between humans and humans (indirect relationship through pathogens). This author describes the disease using quite rigorous medical language which required me to do some decent additional studying (yeah, thanks!). In this book the author still follows the widely accepted consensus – bacterium is causing boreliosis and it is described in some detail here, but at the same time some strange aspects are admitted as well.  

Despite the bacterial cause (in this case we mean Borrelia spirochetes) perspective remains, other findings slightly resemble the medical medium „crazy theory“ so there can be actually an intersection which in turn can become some starting point for real scientific examination or at least source of inspiration.  In few below sections I´m summarizing interesting information I have digested.

Boreliosis in general

At the beginning the author states some interesting things. He states he was not surprised that non-pharmaceutic based approaches seems to be not included in the official medical treatment, a common situation in United States  (Yeah, money, the root of all evil! Nevermind, I just used to listen Body Count as a teenager). However I did not expect substantial amount of research is ignored by medical community, anyway that is how it is and it bothers me a lot​1​. Then author comments boreliosis using six points, hopefully I can cite them here.

  1. Around Lyme disease there is lot of hystery. People are scared and most of them are not sure what to do including doctors.
  2. There is much more sick people than official stats say.
  3. Antibiotics are far from effective as claimed.
  4. It is hard to obtain clear and precise information not biased with emotions.
  5. Lyme disease tests are not as reliable as we would need.
  6. Regarding boreliosis and its treatment something very strange is happening.

If I compare these six statements with medical medium theory I would say I get 100% match. In terms of the Lyme disease occurrence other authors are cited. Epidemiologic data indicate that current occurrence of boreliosis can be ten times higher than CDC data show. It is probably consequence of strictly limited definition of the diagnosis from CDC, then also by unevitable number of cases of incorrect diagnostics and tendency in medical community to decrease the numbers using all other diseases. This statement belongs to Jonathan Edlow, M.D. from Harvard Medical School.

Again it fully corresponds with information given by Anthony William, the pseudo-scientific and sort of ignored medical medium. What else can we get from this? It really seems there cannot be so many people who were bitten by tick bug! I don´t want to tell my story here but I can fully support everything written so far – personal experience.  Anyway medical community stubbornly insists on tick as the only way of infection transition – perhaps some not, but doctors I met with did insist on this. Just by using common sense and little bit of statistical thinking one can say this is a total nonsense but what can we do, explain math to doctors? If I haven´t experienced this situation at the doctor office I would not believe perhaps …

Cause of boreliosis

As a root cause of all the unpleasant and dangerous (serious CNS damage in rare cases!) symptoms and difficulties bacteria is blamed. However at the same time it is added these bacteria is little bit special or unusual. It is spirochete and it is claimed there are many stems. Usually the author means the Borrelia genus.

  1. Spirochetes were found not only in tick – various other insects  (mosquitoes, fleas etc.)
  2. Spirochetes were found in tears, urine, sperm, breast milk.
  3. Confirmed is also mother child in utero infection.
  4. Frequent urine system infections are not coincidence – urine is significant spreading medium mainly in animals.
  5. When spirochetes start to starve they very quickly change their shape/physical form, they transform into cystic forms and can survive up to 10 months or even 2.5 years. The transformation process can be as quick as 1 minute. These cystic forms are part of urine and thus getting infected is possible using many ways – again not just tick bite!  (OK, we usually don´t drink urine but you got it 😉)
  6. Cystic forms can survive frozing and after defreezing they still can infect animals (or people)
  7. Spirochetes are specialists on collagen tissues.
  8. Antibiotics do help people but sometimes they don´t and also in 30% of all treatments re-infections occur.
  9. This borrelia spirochete can survive even long ATB protocols.
  10. Typical spot (EM; erythema migrans) occurs only in one third of cases.
  11. Borrelia in terms of shape mostly resemble corkscrew worm which is how they move in the human body – i.e. sort of drilling through tissues literally.
  12. Places of preferred ocupation are collagen tissues, knee cartilage, eye – vitreous part etc.
  13. 6% of genetic code in Borrelia type bacteria serves motion which is aboveaverage and reflects their ability to move through dense tissues etc.
  14. Medical science admits not much is known about spirochetes in general, compared to other bacteria types causing diseases.
  15. It is very hard and expensive to cultivate spirochetes  in vitro, i.e. in artificial environment in labs, they are very fragile and can be damaged during manipulation.
  16. It is claimed it is nothing new in terms of disease incidence but at the same time it is claimed some ongoing and rapid evolution occured and occurs. One theory mentions big pressure of environment factors – antibiotics, civilization factors (hmm what about toxicity?)
Have you ever heard a doctor saying to patient he/she just cannot have boreliosis, because:

1) Did not have tick recently
2) Did not have famous spot (EM)?

I can tell this actually is very common and nobody can wonder I have little problem with doctors. Note – the bacteria were confirmed to be found in urine, sperm, breast milk, blood so is there any reason why human-2-human infection is not possible? Yeah, there is no such reason and thus I have just proven there is significant number of pretty bad and dangerous doctors out there … Please bear it in mind. The doctor who told me these nonsenses had diploma from US University and is recognized as certain authority. I don´t respect him though.

Borrelia spirochetes in more detail

  1. In the microbial world these spirochetes are said to have some unique properties which are found in more complex organisms (eukaryotic, while microbs are in general prokaryotic organisms).
  2. One such property is unusual chemo-tactical capabilities.
  3. In terms of metabolism they are dependent on hosts – nucleotids, amino acids, enzyms etc. they need to obtain from host organism (e.g. from us, humans!)
  4. Borrelia is said to posses another unique capability – it can frequently change the proteins on its surface membrane which enables it to avoid immune system attack (antigen variability resulting in not recognizing the pathogen by immune cells like macrophags or anti-bodies generated). Also ability to avoid the influence of proteins of complement innate immune system is mentioned).
  5. The infection causes disbalance in immunocomplex – various cells of immune system, mainly Th1 and Th2.
  6. Borrelia stimulates immune system to produce many substances and proteins which however it can use to its own benefit – strange. Author states the bacteria leverages human immunity as a tool and adds more details on that – please refer the book and Lyme arthritis section. Interesting for me is the finding that the amount of bacteria is not that relevant and the arthritis as disease is mainly affected by the state of immunity, disbalance among immune cells (lowering CD4+, CD25+, CD57+ and increasing CD8+). This is interesting as CD8+ are CTLs or cytotoxic killer cells (T-killer lymphocytes) and those rather missing cells are T-helper lymphocytes (CD4+), T-regulative lymphocytes (CD25+) and subset of NK alias natural killer cells of innate immunity (CD57+). Also note arthritis is considered autoimmune disease.
  7. Borrelia prefer synovial tissues – this means, joints, tendons, connective tissues. The targets of this bacterial infection is also skin and CNS
  8. Besides CNS (brain infection) also PNS (peripheral nerves) is frequent target.
  9. Spirochetes which target CNS are said to differ in terms of anti-gens from those which rather target nerves (PNS). Direct attack and spread into spinal cord is very rare and occurs only in case of some serious immunodeficiency – well, this is what ALS is about in our theory!
  10. After borrelia enters brain they tend to attach to glial cells – mainly neuroglia, astroglia, microglia cells. It is said borrelia attaches on roots of these cells and somehow changes them which in my opinion means they probably won´t work properly. Another danger is in the possible process called demyelinization – a process where myelin sheath is damaged which damages the neural function – similarity with multiple sclerosis as well as with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis! Is this similarity just something we should ignore? In my amateur opinion: Not at all!
  11. In brain borrelia tends to transform to cystic form which often causes it is not detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

I apologize for this longer list of notes but it all sounds very similar. Perhaps it is just my impression but I think there are big common points in both works. The book is strongly recommended to any scientist who would read this, because I certainly cannot reproduce all the information completelly and entirely correctly – I´m always willing to correct any obvious mistake though, just send e-mail.

Neurotoxins and escape from immune attack

This part I rather put into dedicated section as the findings seem very important to me. Please note I´m still trying to find hidden path across scientific ALS related findings, strange virus based theory and now strange bacterial theory explaining boreliosis. Many can protest, but so far I see the path and I don´t think it is just a feeling or intentional and violent mixing of theories to get where I want. I would be more than glad to hear some counter arguments etc. I´m searching for a needle in the haystack.

While Anthony William does not specify the neurotoxins in details, in case of Lyme disease theory and borrelia spirochetes presence in tissues we are actualy told one exact chemical substance – it is quinolinic acid abreviated as QUIN. This acid is believed to be neurotoxic but what everyone can also learn, this acid is being produced by microglia cells. These cells are actually part of human immunity as they are macrophages of neural networks, cells we rely on when infection appears in our PNS or CNS. That is strange, isn´t it?

High levels of QUIN in brain were detected in people with Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington, dementia and AIDS diseases​1​. For me the actual levels which are already considered dangerous or rather lethal for neuron cells are not that important . It is just some number but there is another factor which makes situation worse – presence of reactive forms of oxygen (ROS). When present in brain together with QUIN it accelerates the damage significantly – much more neuron cells die as a result. Here again ROS molecules are produced by our white blood cells.

ROS are produced in immune cell signaling via the NOX pathway. Phagocytic cells such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and mononuclear phagocytes produce ROS when stimulated​4​.

Now in case of Lyme disease it is stated the QUIN levels are comparable with lower bound QUIN levels seen in AIDS dementia or AIDS neurologic infection. This is again very interesting to me.

First thing is this intersection among all the diseases. We have some problem in the body and this problem can be expressed in many ways – the old wisdom says „weakest part of the chain breaks first“. However the root problem can be one specific cause – like the tip of the pyramid. At the same time we have AIDS, MS & ALS, Huntington, Parkinson, Lyme or Boreliosis and many other diseases – or just labels for symptoms which people traced out during their mostly independent efforts? Just by following the common sense I would tend to state there is actually some „unknown super factor“ a primary super cause of most of these diseases. Of course I know in case of AIDS the HIV virus plays big role – this virus attacks T-helper lymphocytes which causes big problem in the immune system of the infected person. Together with the high mutation ratio this RNA virus can literally wreck our immune system and what happens then? Any infection can actually kill such person, pneumonia or anything else, so called opportunistic infection. This forms certain memento for me  – I make use of analogies a lot and the root cause of AIDS is HIV virus, virus or pathogen which had to be observed first and its insidious behavior described. Can the same be true for all before mentioned neurologic diseases? Perhaps not single virus but a set of viruses/pathogen working in strange alliance? I would not be surprised, not at all surprised. I would say this possibility is my logical conclusion but it also is exactly what one medical medium states​2,3​ 😉

There is also second thing which immediately brought my interest here. Presence of a toxic chemical substance like QUIN in CNS which together with ROS forms cause neuron dying. As I already wrote the producers of QUIN and ROS are our cells which do this in order to destroy infection. Those reactive oxygen species do work against bacteria and Borrelia is known to stimulate ROS releasing more than other spirochetes. Still these pathogens have their escape strategies based on certain BosR – Borrelia oxidative stress response regulator and their ability to modify their surface membrane proteins. Neurotoxins are also released heavily during so called Herxheimer reactions.

I got to description of pretty low level stuff but this is what I digested from various sources and there is one thing which again attracted my interest. Borrelia bacterium is said to be capable of neutralizing the effects of the innate complement immunity, mainly the C3 protein which is the main component of membrane attack complex (MAC) – powerful human weapon when fighting against bacterial infection.  It is also known the set of proteins like C3 or C9 etc. of complement system are produced in liver!

Spirochetes are also capable of changing their forms very quickly when under attack of immunity – cystic form, L-form … or some „bubbles“ (blebs).

Mysterious bubbles

These so called „bubbles“ deserve dedicated section because that is something I kind of was searching for – a mystery for science, unknown terrain. What science revealed is that spirochetes excret these bubbles during their growing phase and it is another escape strategy. These bubbles attract majority of IgM antibodies in blood stream – it serves the same purpose as flares released by jet fighters. However it is not the end – these bubbles then enter other human cells and as per the book, to the surprise of science community CD8+ cells alias CTLs or cytotoxic T-killer lymphocytes start attacking the cells which were infiltrated by these strange bubbles/blebs. Wow!  Science speculate about autoimmune character of Lyme disease and has no further explanation on this yet – at least based on the book from 2005. Let´s stop for a while here – how can this be autoimmune behavior? That could be option if some healthy cell was strangely attacked but in this case it is literally stated some pathogen is releasing something which infiltrates our cells, so there is more than good reason to think it compromises the cell and thus makes it eligible for killing by immune system. Well, perhaps someone knows more and I will find it.

Immunodeficiency

There is another finding. Regarding late stage of boreliosis it is confirmed people tend to have very low levels of NK cells. NK cells means natural killer cells and it is again very important weapon in the human immunity arsenal (innate immunity). The same statement but little bit different I can find in other sources. There is another important player on the innate immune system team which can help defend against a viral infection: natural killer (NK) cell. Indeed, humans with genetic defects which make them dificient in NK cell function have great difficulty controlling herpes and papillomavirus infections . Natural killer cells mature in the bone marrow and , when they are not responding to infection, are short-lived, with half life of only about week. Most NK cells are found in blood or in spleen and liver (the organs that store blood), and relatively few NK cells reside in tissues that are not under attack.​5​  

Herpetic viruses? Well OK, I have heard about them! Anyway imagine everyone has these killer cells which protect us and I personally trust my little killers 100% – I don´t think these would turn against me (“autoimmunity”), I think they are very smart battle tested and know who is friend and who is foe. Problem may be somewhere else. That is my “weird thinking” but it helps ☺

Treatment & Diagnostics

There is no official treatment against boreliosis or Lyme disease if ATB protocols don´t work and people experience recurrent infection/issues. The book mentions vaccination in 1998 which ended with a great failure – it appeared it actually promoted the disease in 10-30% of patients. WTF? People came with anti-cure? Everything is possible! Hopefully not the case with today COVID19 vaccines. What is recommended are mainly natural protocols based on herbs and some supplements with decent intersection with protocol recommended by Anthony William (and as you will see later also others!). Besides that diagnostic tests like ELISA and WesternBlot are evaluated as only partially reliable. I can write here both these tests were negative for me, but I certainly was not healthy. More on that also later.

Summary

I think this post is somewhat chaotic and it mixes lot of things together – some are beyond standard reader interest and knowledge. I will try to gradually improve it but my „tracing effort“ here has some results and this I can present here in bullet points for better understanding.

  • The purpose of this post was to analyze any links between Lyme disease and ALS experimental theory
  • It is known Anthony William herpetic virus group based theory comprises Lyme diseases.
  • Another very thorough work on Lyme disease subject written by Stephen Harrod Buhner was analyzed.
  • Both theories have substantial commonalities.
    • Both admit strange aspects of boreliosis/Lyme disease
    • Both are pathogen based (virus Vs advanced bacterium)
    • Both mention pathogens are dependent on host environment in terms of metabolic functions – need to receive „food“ and produce „toxic stuff“ or promote immunity to produce possibly toxic products
    • Both mention pathogen literally attaches to nerve or glial cells
    • Both mention neurotoxins as a source of unpleasant symptoms
    • Both mention ATBs as limited and not entirely well working treatment
      • In case of viral infection theory it is clear (ATBs are anti-bacterial only)
      • In case of bacterial infection theory strange resistance is considered factor together with unique abilities to change surface membrain proteins and other advanced methods of escape.
    • Both state weakened immunity is key factor – disbalance in certain white blood cells, lack of NK cells.
    • Both theories do show certain cross-disease potential  and there is another scientist (Lida Mattman; Nobel prize candidate) who has been working on theory saying multiple sclerosis is caused by spirochetes! Her work deserves to be be examined.
    • Both recommend natural healing protocols and share some ingredients – for instance Vilcacora/Uncaria Tomentosa (immunostimulant of those more than needed NK cells)

Further interpretation

I do believe spirochetes exist as they are described and analyzed well including genome etc. However there can be still room for the case there is actually something which may at some point look like spirochete shape. Well why not, right? Those statements regarding very complex in vitro spirochete growing efforts together with their fragile property keeps me in this sci-fi theory – I refuse to close or reject the controversy statement saying „viruses produce something looking like spirochete bacterium“. However virus can produce something only once it enters a cell, otherwise it is quite powerless.

I also remember the excessive glutamate​6​ factor in ALS. This symptom is confirmed and consists of high levels of glutamate in brain of people with ALS. Surprisingly for me there is certain cross-link which I easily realized but I still do not fully understand it. The thing is glutamate​6​ is a neurotransmitter but also potential neurotoxic substance. It is toxic only in its extracellular form, i.e. outside of neuron cells. Normally the body has a process for cleaning the extracelullar molecules – this is what astrocytes or astroglial cells are supposed to take care of. Glutamate and its precursor glutamine can be manufactured in human body. In case of boreliosis it is stated borrelia attacks these cells – assuming including astrocytes – and causes changes in them. I would like to highlight this somehow – if something changes astrocytes who are responsible for cleaning up neurotoxic extracellular glutamate neurotransmitter than I would not be surprised these glial cells stop working properly​7​ and perhaps … I repeat perhaps the result can be excessive amount of extracellular glutamate in brain causing neuron death and worsening health state of ALS diagnosed patients. At the same time there is certain link between QUIN and glutamate receptors – haven´t studied that yet. Whether glutamate or QUIN both are claimed neurotoxic when certain amount thresholds are exceeded. In one article I found following statement.

Bad neighbors are usually a mere annoyance, but in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, they kill. According to a recent study, astrocytes, which are supposed to nurture neurons, turn deadly when they express the disease-linked mutant enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD1)​7​.

Another key point for me is the ability of Borrelia spirochete to avoid immune attack. Immune attack may consist of macrophages which in case of CNS means microglial cells and partially also astrocytes (phagocytosis ability). These immune cells are stated to produce QUIN and ROS which however the pathogen can withstand somehow – it survives and it does brain damage as described above. Last thing is the blebs or bubbles – I´m just highlighting it for potential scientist as there lies a key to further understanding, at least in my opinion.

Is it just me who would instantly say „virus“ as a first word when „something“ has strange habit to enter cell (dendritic, lymphocyte, fibroplast) and then to move to cell nucleus and then … then the infiltrated cell receives attack from T-killer lymphocyte, specialists trained to kill cells occupied by or malformed by viruses? We as mankind would need to be blind in that case. Well I have never worked with electron microscope … Someone should take a look again!

I´m working like a google crawler which means the amount of information to process grows more or less exponentially – tough to follow but I´m on it. Please if you have advanced interest take a look at following sources​5,7–13​.

If not please realize all I found still keeps the ALS as pathogen caused disease 💥hot💥.

In the next post I will really prove my NoLimit investigation rule as I will make a little deep dive into esotheric landscape.

References

  1. 1.
    Harrold Buhner S. Healing Lyme: Natural Healing and Prevention of Lyme Borreliosis and Its Coinfections . Raven Press; 2005.
  2. 2.
    William A. Medical Medium Thyroid Healing: The Truth behind Hashimoto’s, Graves’, Insomnia, Hypothyroidism, Thyroid Nodules & Epstein-Barr. Hay House Inc.; 2017.
  3. 3.
    William A. Medical Medium: Secrets Behind Chronic and Mystery Illness and How to Finally Heal . Hay House Inc.; 2015.
  4. 4.
    Reactive Oxygen Species. Wikipedia. Accessed October 2020. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_oxygen_species
  5. 5.
    Sompayrac LM. How the Immune System Works (The How It Works Series). 6th ed. Wiley-Blackwell; 2019.
  6. 6.
    Adaes S. What Is Glutamate. NeuroHacker. Accessed October 2020. https://neurohacker.com/what-is-glutamate
  7. 7.
    Believe It: Astrocytes Kill Neurons in New ALS Model. ALZForum. https://www.alzforum.org/news/research-news/believe-it-astrocytes-kill-neurons-new-als-model
  8. 8.
    Dunham-Ems SM, Caimano MJ, Pal U, et al. Live imaging reveals a biphasic mode of dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi within ticks. J Clin Invest. Published online December 1, 2009:3652-3665. doi:10.1172/jci39401
  9. 9.
    Ebbo M, Gérard L, Carpentier S, et al. Low Circulating Natural Killer Cell Counts are Associated With Severe Disease in Patients With Common Variable Immunodeficiency. EBioMedicine. Published online April 2016:222-230. doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.02.025
  10. 10.
    Tavares RG, Tasca CI, Santos CES, Alves LB. Quinolinic acid stimulates synaptosomal glutamate release and inhibits glutamate uptake into astrocytes. ResearchGate. Accessed October 2020. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/11462785_Quinolinic_acid_stimulates_synaptosomal_glutamate_release_and_inhibits_glutamate_uptake_into_astrocytes
  11. 11.
    Steiner J, Walter M, Gos T, et al. Severe depression is associated with increased microglial quinolinic acid in subregions of the anterior cingulate gyrus: Evidence for an immune-modulated glutamatergic neurotransmission? Journal of Neuroinflammation. Published online 2011:94. doi:10.1186/1742-2094-8-94
  12. 12.
    Rudenko N, Golovchenko M, Kybicova K, Vancova M. Metamorphoses of Lyme disease spirochetes: phenomenon of Borrelia persisters. Parasites Vectors. Published online May 16, 2019. doi:10.1186/s13071-019-3495-7
  13. 13.
    Quinolic Acid. ScienceDirect. Accessed October 2020. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/quinolinic-acid
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